Is Africa a Failure? is an unpublished short paper. The usual way to refer to the performance of African countries over the forty or so years since independence is as a ‘crisis,’ or even a ‘rot.’ In these versions of Africa’s recent history, there is but one thing to argue over –who is to blame. This does, however, raise the question, ‘at what has Africa failed?' The answer for parts of the continent is clear –but these cases do not make up the majority (or even a sizeable minority) of the region. In many important respects --not least health-- Africa’s post-colonial record remains one of considerable success.